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Случайная цитата: "Счастье улыбается в течение долгого времени только тому, кто его достоин" (А. фон Шлиффен, речь 25 ноября 1900).
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византийский дромон, 7-10 века н.э.
Модераторы: Dedal

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Ильдар
Отправлено 25/1/2014 03:17 (#130909 - в ответ на #130907)
Тема: Re:Дромоны идут (чертёж)



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Gennadius - 24/1/2014 21:26
А откуда этот чертёж? В смысле, из какой монографии, или альбома чертежей?


Из статьи Ульриха Алерца в известном и часто мной упоминаемом сборнике R. Gardiner, J. Morrison (eds.). The Age of the Galley. Mediterranean Oared Vessels Since Pre-Classical Times. Edison, 2000. Скан моего экземпляра книги, который я дал Dedal'у и который он запустил в сеть, можно довольно легко найти. Статья называется "The Naval Architecture and Oar System of Medieval and Later Galleys" (стр. 142-162)

И кто такой Ульрих Алерц, если не трудно?


Dr. Ulrich Alertz - автор статей и монографий, работает в Историческом институте Аахенского университета и является специалистом по всяким среденевековым машинам и кораблям.

Ниже картинка получше (кликабельна) и фрагмент (ссылки убрал) о реконструкции дромона из вышеназванной статьи:



Top: Sheer elevation of the dromon and perspective views of the foreship with the siphon and above it the platform.
Bottom: Hypothetical lines and body plan, reconstructed by the author.


The dromon of 890

Reconstructing a dromon is bound to be very difficult, if not impossible, with the present state of knowledge. Some authors seem to have found the missing link in the direct line of development from the trireme of the Peloponnesian War to the armoured cruiser of the First World War, but they are unable to provide a credible representation of the predecessor of the Mediterranean galley. No single illustration exists of which we could say today that it definitely represents a Byzantine dromon. Leo VI only provides very general recommendations: that the dromon should neither be built too wide nor too narrow, and offer space for at least 25 thwarts below and 25 above. Accurate dimensions and plans were not possible because the vessels were built using the shell method. Dromons were - like the contemporary ships of the Vikings - all built in the same way to the same overall design, but differed considerably in size, especially in beam and height. Leo writes that all dromons carried their main weapon, a large bow-mounted 'siphon' to project Greek Fire, and a wooden platform above.

The illustration shown here of a dromon with siphon and a platform above agrees amazingly well with Leo's description. The lively but somewhat crude graffito from Malaga shows the shape of an oared warship of the type which Leo describes, but lacks any artistic ambition. The sketch shows no detail at all. It does not appear to be based on a picture by a third party, and it is assumed that it was drawn by an eye-witness.

The dark circles in the lower half of the hull seem to indicate the ports for the lower row of oars. The lower edge of the upper half of the hull overlaps the ports below, and may represent a projecting outrigger for an upper row of oars, although a second row is not shown. This could be a small dromon, monêrês or galaia, or alternatively perhaps a particularly large dromon. The bulwark projecting over the lower hull side could then represent the wooden castle mentioned above, the xylokastron, which was located in the centre (between forward and after superstructure) on the largest dromons. The xylokastron would then correspond to the kastelloma, as mentioned by Leo, which was used by the 150 armed men standing above to fix their shields. The mast is raked strongly forward and is supported by shrouds, in contrast to its classical Greek predecessors, and carries a triangular lateen sail. The rig is similar to that of the later Italian galleys, right up to the archaic ring at the masthead. The curved stern and the two side rudders could even date from Roman predecessors. The ship has neither a waterline ram like ancient warships nor a projecting prow in the manner of later galleys.

For good reasons H.D.L. Viereck and Olaf Hockmann judge the sketch cautiously as dating from the sixth century, when for several decades the area around Malaga belonged to the Byzantine Empire. According to the above considerations, however, the graffito could not pre-date the time of the Greek Fire, which according to tradition, had been introduced as principal weapon on the dromons by the Syrian Callinicus around AD 672.

The reconstructed line drawing of the dromon from the time of Leo VI is thus based on two very paltry sources, each completely independent of the other, but agreeing in certain characteristic areas. Moreover, the line and curvature of the sheer timbers and the form of the stern are not dissimilar to an illustration of a twelfth-century Byzantine warship. The frames are likely to have had a pronounced U-shape - as on the Byzantine Yassi Ada ship dating from the seventh century - which may have continued from the main frame to the hull ends. In this respect the dromon was similar to the Galea de Fiandra of 1410, the oldest galley which can be reconstructed reliably. Details such as the curvature of the keel, of the deck edge and of the outrigger, and also the shape and proportion of the underwater hull, have therefore been drawn in the style of this ship.
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