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Случайная цитата: Пирр на вопрос своих мальчиков, кому из них он оставит царство, ответил: «Тому, у кого острее будет меч».(Плутарх. Изречения царей и полководцев)
- (Добавлено: Друг Рима)


чешуя
Модераторы: Дмитрий, Клим

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Ильдар
Отправлено 9/10/2011 00:50 (#121994 - в ответ на #121992)
Тема: RE: чешуя



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Alexandr - 8/10/2011 23:12
Где-то можно найти про это


Ну, например, в PhD-диссертации Йона Кулстона (№9 у меня):

5.14. SARMATIANS

Two very different types of figures may be identified as belonging to a single ethnic group. In two scenes armoured barbarian cavalry appear (XXXI, 18,19,22; XXXVII, 9-14). They are uniformly clad in ankle and wrist-length scale armour, a narrow waist-belt and a conical, banded and ribbed, flat-topped or pointed helmet. Their horses are likewise covered in scale armour down to their hooves and have pierced eye-guards. Muzzles, ears and docked tails are visible and reins are the only form of harness depicted. A ridge of vertical scales appears on the horses' necks. The armour of man and horse fits the body and limbs very tightly. One man shoots a bow over the hind-quarters of his mount (XXXVII, 12), one has a scabbarded short sword with a semi-circular chape (XXXVII, 13) and two appear to have lost shafted weapons (XXXI, 18,19). In scene C three barbarian ambassadors each wear a long-sleeved garment with horizontal seams across the torso and an ankle-length skirt (C, 3-5).

5.14.1. Body Armour

This depiction of armoured barbarian figures on the column is almost unique in Roman art. Roman literary sources only referred commonly to Sarmatian tribes amongst Rome's contemporary barbarian enemies in Europe as having armoured cavalry. Tacitus described the Roxolani as armoured lancers and Pausanius saw captured Sarmatian horn scales at Olympia (Greece). Ammianus Marcellinus specifically [326] referred to Sarmatian horn scale armour in the 4th century A.D. Reliefs and tomb paintings in the Sarmaticized Bosphoran city states, many of 1st century A.D. date, depict horsemen in mail or scale body armour and horses with scale trappers. Roman literary references to Trajanic conflicts with Sarmatians further support the identification of the column's armoured barbarian cavalry with these Iranian nomads.

The stela of Tryphon from Kertsch-Panticapaeum (U.S.S.R.) depicts a rider on an unarmoured horse. He wears a scale cuirass reaching down to his elbows and mid-thighs. A cap or helmet sits on his head and he wields a lance with both hands. No other weapons are visible. Charging lancers appear on frescoes with the two handed contus, conical, ribbed helmets and mail cuirasses extending to elbows and thighs. Another Panticapaeum stela depicts a horse wearing a scale trapper which hangs down on either side of its body. Depictions of heavily armoured horsemen in the Partho-Sassanid sphere include various forms of scale, mail, segmental plate or fabric armour for the rider and partial or complete scale, lamellar or fabric armour for the horse. Two trappers of iron and copper alloy scales stitched to a fabric backing were found in Tower 19 at Dura-Europos. When worn these hung down freely on either side of the horse. Elsewhere at Dura two graffiti depict horses wearing a trapper with a separate neck-piece and chamfron. One has a separate peytral. The last three items without a trapper are seen on the 7th century A.D. Tāq-i-Bustān horseman relief. These pieces were presumably tied by lacing or strapping around the horse but all the depictions and artifacts, Bosphoran and Partho-Sassanid, make it clear that they hung down freely from the body. They were [327] not strapped up closely underneath the horse and there is no evidence that in any historical period horses have had their legs armoured in the manner of the column.

It may be concluded that the close-fitting nature of the column's scale armour is inaccurate and also that the visible torso musculature of the riders results from the same stylising influence as was at work on mail depiction (see 5.3.1). Scale armour was inflexible and could not be so closely tailored to the body if either rider or horse were to move. A form of scale leg armour was employed in the Achaemenid period, perhaps as a result of Persian contacts with the Massagetae who seem to have developed heavy cavalry armour first. However, this armour was a wide leg-guard or chap, not a close-fitting trouser. The horses' eye-guards depicted on the column as small domes with drilled holes are paralleled by the many eye-protectors from Roman cavalry sports chamfrons. The possibility cannot be ruled out that the sculptors had seen such chamfrons rather than horse-armour proper. Unfortunately, there is no horse-armour on the pedestal reliefs which could be used for comparison with the spiral scenes. Despite the size of horse-armour panoply it could have been divided up into its constituent elements for display on the pedestal in the manner of the chamfrons and peytrals on the Hellenistic Athena Polias frieze from Pergamon (Turkey), or the chamfron on the 1st century B.C. S. Omobono (Rome) frieze. Horse-armour may not of course have been captured and taken to Rome for the triumph. More likely the horse-armour may have been difficult to place on a conventional Roman trophy, whereas scene LXXVIII demonstrates that everything else on the pedestal reliefs could have been so displayed.
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