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Случайная цитата: "С пушками в гости не приходят." из письма молдавсково боярина королю Сигизмунду I
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Индийские "сарисофоры".
Модераторы: Дмитрий, Клим

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hoplit
Отправлено 15/8/2021 20:32 (#142243)
Тема: Индийские "сарисофоры".


Ducenarius

Сообщений: 71
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Эта фотография тут уже была. Просто добавлю несколько ссылок, возможно кому-то пригодится.



Атрибуция - Through the eye of time: photographs of Arunachal Pradesh 1859-2006: tribal cultures in the eastern Himalayas. 2008, на странице 14.

‘Gambu [mock warfare] scene.’

Ursula Betts, Apatani valley, 1947, PRM



Автор снимка - антрополог Ursula Violet Graham Betts, она же Ursula Violet Graham Bower.

Описание "гамбу" есть в ее книге The Hidden Land. 1953 в главе 11. Даты в книге, по какой-то причине, указаны криво. 1953 превратился в 1913, и далее в том же духе. Если не путаю - 1905 это 1945.

Early in June there were rumours of a gambu in the Valley. A gambu is a mass duel, a peculiar Apa Tani institution, a mode of settling quarrels between different villages. The Apa Tanis, closely-packed as they are in their small, highly-cultivated enclave, cannot afford the long, bloody feuds of their Dafla neighbours; their disputes must be regulated or they would starve. All Apa Tani activity, hunting, weaving, house-building, travelling and the like, is closely geared to and controlled by the agricultural year, and disputes are similarly treated. For ten montlis, from the beginning of the rice-harvest in August through the trading and traveling seasons in December and January, the bank-repairing in February, the rice-sowing in March, the rice-transplanting in April and the millet-transplanting in May, quarrels between Apa Tani and Apa Tani are left to the individual to settle by kidnapping, negotiation or by other means. By about May 21st, however, heavy agricultural work is over till harvest except for periodic weedings, and instantly the whole Valley bursts into frantic litigation. All outstanding disputes are brought out for settlement and from end to end the villages buzz with disputation. Bamboo stakes appear in rice-fields overnight in formal notice of a grievance against the owner; unsatisfied claimants cut swathes in their opponents’ lialf-grown crops or break the banks of their fields; outraged defendants perform ceremonies to attest their innocence.

...

They were an extraordinary sight. All wore cane helmets and had folded cloths or stout strips of tapestry round their throats as a protection against arrows; some wore hide corselets in the Dafla fashion and some made do with cloaks wrapped round their middles like cummerbunds. All carried shields made of a hide oblong stretched on a frame, but they looked awkward things to handle and too light to stop much more than a spent arrow. All had bows and long daos, but, more amazing than anything, each carried an enormous bamboo lance fully thirty feet long. These cumbersome pikes wobbled with their own weight; their upper halves inchned gently backwards from the mere resistance of the air as they were borne on; and their bearers marched stiffly and self-importantly, each clinging with widely-separated hands to the shaft of his spectacular weapon. At the rear of the file were unarmoured men shouldering what I at first thought were bamboo torches, but I later realized these were bundles of javelins.

...

Behind, a tail of small boys, stray dogs and ourselves followed the perspective of wavering pikes. ... Instantly all the small boys began to run and on the skyline beyond us we saw a mass of figures sweep forward out of the line of batde and disappear down the slope beyond.

...

We hurried over the rise. In front of us was a cloud of dust in which men with levelled pikes were disentangling themselves from the bamboo fence of a small vegetable-garden on the edge of the bank. Duta had just charged. But there was no enemy in sight. The rice-fields were vacant and green and Bela sheltered invisible behind its bamboo groves. The rush was purely a demonstration, a look-what-I-should-do-to-you- if-you-were-only-here gesture. As we watched, Duta’s first platoon extricated itself from the fence, sloped pikes and trailed back again up the slope, and after an interval of scratching, spitting and general conversation the second Duta contingent formed itself up and executed a similar manoeuvre. Twenty minutes later they were followed equally raggedly by the Hari men, who went hopping with levelled pikes down the same sort of gentlej slope and brought up, like Duta, when they came into unwarlike contact with another small vegetable-garden. At this moment, however, the Haja, Michi Bamin and Mudang Tage forces were seen advancing towards the battlefield, the war broke off and everyone stood about chatting and waiting for them to come up.

...

It had not occurred to us that anyone, even the Apa Tanis themselves, could consider this comic-opera affair a deadly serious military demonstration, for compared to war as we unfortunately knew it — or even as the Daflas or the Nagas knew it, when it was quite bad enough - this was nursery charades.

...

When they reached the point nearest Bela they lowered their pikes and advanced their shields and began to bounce along the path with a straddled step which, like the rrr-rrr, was an accepted expression of hostility and a formal mime of war. This lasted until the path curved back, and they ceased their demonstration, raised their pikes again and marched solemnly back to resume their station on the bluff



О вооружении их соседей дафла - Brahma Kumar Shukla. The Daflas of the Subansiri Region. 1965. Глава IV.I.


Фотографии апатани с короткими копьями (их тоже много) сделал другой антрополог, который работал там примерно в то же время, Christoph von Fürer-Haimendorf.




Часто это даже не фото, а кадры из видеосъёмок. К примеру - https://av.mandala.library.virginia.edu/video/house-burning-expediti... и https://digital.soas.ac.uk/LOADI03738/00001?search=fürer-haimendorf

Он тоже написал книгу - The Apa Tanis and their neighbours. 1962 Описание вооруженных конфликтов в главе VI. С описаниями Урсулы Беттс они, что характерно, не сходятся почти по всем пунктам. Автор пишет, что апатани во время гамбу стреляют из луков и мечут копья. До ближнего боя дело почти никогда не доходит, при этом немец под "ближним боем" подразумевает, насколько понимаю из контекста, схватку на клинках. И подчеркивает редкость таких случаев тем, что на гамбу клинковое оружие (дао и прочее) часто вообще не берут.

Длинные пики, которые сфотографировала и описала Беттс, у него не упоминаются. Их нет на его фотографиях и в его фильмах. Повторюсь - работали они почти в одно и то же время и по-долгу (было несколько экспедиций). На региональные отличия это тоже не списать - вся территория апатани это порядка 30 км2, в 1960-е - 7 деревень и около 11 тысяч человек населения.
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